Homepage > Indian Classical Music > This Page

FUNDAMENTALS OF RAG

by David Courtney working tools


Ragmala
Ragaputra Vardhan, (circa 1790)

The rag is the most important concept that any student of Indian music should understand.  The Hindi/Urdu word "rag" is derived from the Sanskrit "raga" which means "colour, or passion" (Apte 1987).  It is linked to the Sanskrit word "ranj" which means "to colour" (Apte 1987).  Therefore rag may be thought of as an acoustic method of colouring the mind of the listener with an emotion.  This is fine as a general concept but what is it musically?  It is not a tune, melody, scale, mode, or any concept for which an English word exists.  It is instead a combination of different characteristics.  It is these characteristics which define the rag.  Here are the characteristics.

There must be the notes of the rag.  They are called the swar.  This concept is similar to the Western solfege.

There must also be a modal structure.  This is called that in North Indian music and mela in carnatic music.

There is also the jati.  Jati is the number of notes used in the rag.

There must also be the ascending and descending structure.  This is called arohana /avarohana.

Another characteristic is that the various notes do not have the same level of significance.  Some are important and others less so.  The important notes are called vadi and samavadi

There are often characteristic movements to the rag.  This is called either pakad or swarup.

In addition to the main characteristics of rag, there are some other less important ones.  For instance rags have traditionally been attributed to particular times of the day.  They have also been anthropomorphize into families of male and female rags (raga, ragini, putra raga, etc.).  There is a tendency to downgrade the importance of these aspects due to their irrational and unscientific nature.

(Remember to check out the Index of Rags)

 

Instruments Used To Play Rags

 


 

Selected Video

David Courtney - Ernesto leon (What is a Rag? A detailed introduction to the concept of rag)

 

Raga Jog

 

Todi Ragam in violin by TKV Sir

 

Revathi ragam by MS Subbulakshmi-Saranam Ayyappa

 

 


Ustad Amir Khan Raga Malkauns

 

Veena by Subbalakshmi Satyanand - Thodi

 

Gouri banerjee playing raag Madhubanti in Sarangi.

 

Pt Ravi Shankar Explications on Raag

 

 

 

This page last updated

© 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 David and Chandrakantha Courtney

For comments, corrections, and suggestions, kindly contact David Courtney at [email protected]